sábado, 17 de noviembre de 2012



The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. Set in the Kingdom of Denmark, the play dramatizes the revenge Prince Hamlet exacts on his uncle Claudius for murdering King Hamlet, Claudius's brother and Prince Hamlet's father, and then succeeding to the throne and taking as his wife Gertrude, the old king's widow and Prince Hamlet's mother. The play vividly portrays both true and feigned madness – from overwhelming grief to seething rage – and explores themes of treachery, revenge, incest, and moral corruption and family.
Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play and among the most powerful and influential tragedies in all of English literature, with a story capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others."The play was one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetimeand still ranks among his most-performed, topping the Royal Shakespeare Company's performance list since 1879.It has inspired writers from Goethe and Dickens to Joyce and Murdoch, and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella".
It has been theorized that Hamlet is based on the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum as subsequently retold by 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest. Shakespeare may also have drawn on or perhaps written an earlier (hypothetical) Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet. He almost certainly created the title role for Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time.[5] In the 400 years since, the role has been performed by highly acclaimed actors and actresses from each successive age.
Three different early versions of the play are extant, the First Quarto (Q1, 1603), the Second Quarto (Q2, 1604), and the First Folio (F1, 1623). Each version includes lines, and even entire scenes, missing from the others. The structure and depth of characterisation have inspired much critical scrutiny. One such example is the centuries-old debate about Hamlet's hesitation to kill his uncle, which some see as a mere plot device to prolong the action, but which others argue is a dramatization of the complex philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge, and thwarted desire. More recently, psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, and feminist critics have re-evaluated and rehabilitated the often maligned characters of Ophelia and Gertrude.


                             Leonardo da Vinci


Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci  :(April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519, Old Style) was an Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. His genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived. According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote".Marco Rosci states that while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time.
Born out of wedlock to a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman, Caterina, at Vinci in the region of Florence, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter, Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice, and he spent his last years in France at the home awarded him by Francis I.
Leonardo was and is renowned primarily as a painter. Among his works, the Mona Lisa is the most famous and most parodied portrait and The Last Supper the most reproduced religious painting of all time, with their fame approached only by Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam. Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon, being reproduced on items as varied as the euro, textbooks, and T-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings survive, the small number because of his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination.Nevertheless, these few works, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, compose a contribution to later generations of artists rivalled only by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo.
Leonardo is revere  for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, a calculator and the double hull, and he outlined a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were even feasible during his lifetime, but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded. He made important discoveries in anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and hydrodynamics, but he did not publish his findings and they had no direct influence on later science.


                             Wuthering Heights

Wuthering Heights is the only published novel by Emily Brontë, written between October 1845 and June 1846and published in July of the following year. It was not printed until December 1847 under the pseudonym Ellis Bell, after the success of her sister Charlotte Brontë's novel Jane Eyre. A posthumous second edition was edited by Charlotte in 1850.
The title of the novel comes from the Yorkshire manor on the moors of the story. The narrative centres on the all-encompassing, passionate, but ultimately doomed love between Catherine Earnshaw and Heathcliff, and how this unresolved passion eventually destroys them and the people around them.
Today considered a classic of English literature, Wuthering Heights met with mixed reviews and controversy when it first appeared, mainly because of the narrative's stark depiction of mental and physical cruelty. Although Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre was generally considered the best of the Brontë sisters' works during most of the nineteenth century, many subsequent critics of Wuthering Heights argued that it was a superior achievement.

Opening (chapters 1 to 3)

In 1801, Mr. Lockwood, a rich man from the south of England, rents Thrushcross Grange in the north of England for peace and recuperation. Soon after his arrival, he visits his landlord, Mr. Heathcliff, who lives in the remote moorland farmhouse called "Wuthering Heights." He finds the inhabitants of Wuthering Heights to be a rather strange group: Mr. Heathcliff appears a gentleman but his mannerisms suggest otherwise; the reserved mistress of the house is in her mid-teens; and a young man appears to be one of the family, although he dresses and talks like a servant.
Being snowed in, Mr. Lockwood stays the night and is shown to an unused chamber, where he finds books and graffiti from a former inhabitant of the farmhouse named Catherine. When he falls asleep, he has a nightmare in which he sees Catherine as a ghost trying to enter through the window. Heathcliff rushes to the room after hearing him yelling in fear. He believes Mr. Lockwood is telling the truth, and inspects the window, opening it in a futile attempt to let Catherine's spirit in from the cold. After nothing eventuates, Heathcliff shows Mr. Lockwood to his own bedroom, and returns to keep guard at the window.

As soon as the sun rises, Mr. Lockwood is escorted back to Thrushcross Grange by Heathcliff. There, he asks his housekeeper, Nelly Dean, to tell him the story of the family from the Heights




Camping is an outdoor recreational activity. The participants (known as campers) leave urban areas, their home region, or civilization and enjoy nature while spending one or several nights outdoors, usually at a campsite. Camping may involve the use of a tent, caravan, motorhome, cabin, a primitive structure, or no shelter at all. In many parts of the world, camping refers exclusively to the use of tents or similar portable structures.
Camping as a recreational activity became popular in the early 20th century. Campers frequent national or state parks, other publicly owned natural areas, and privately owned campgrounds. Camping is a key part of many youth organizations around the world, such as scouting. It is used to teach self-reliance and teamwork.
Camping is also used as an inexpensive form of accommodation for people attending large open air events such as sporting meetings and music festivals. Organizers often provide a field and other basic amenities.



La natación es el movimiento y/o desplazamiento a través del agua mediante el uso de las extremidades corporales y por lo general sin utilizar ningún instrumento artificial. La natación es una actividad que puede ser útil y recreativa. Sus usos principales son el baño, refrescarse para combatir el calor, buceo, pesca submarina, salvamento acuático, actividad lúdica, ejercicio y deporte.

El deporte acuático en natación implica la competencia entre participantes para ser el más rápido sobre una distancia establecida, exclusivamente mediante propulsión propia. Las diferentes distancias a recorrer se establecen según los diferentes niveles de competencia. Por ejemplo, el actual programa olímpico de natación contiene eventos de estilo libre de 50 m., 100 m., 200 m., 400 m., 800 m. y 1500 m.; eventos de 100 y 200 metros en el estilo espalda, braza y mariposa; 200 m. de estilos individuales (es decir mariposa de 50 m., 50 m. espalda, 50 m. braza y 50 m. libres); 400 m. de combinado individual (100 m. mariposa, 100 m. espalda, 100 m. braza, estilo libre y 100 m.), y el maratón.
La mayoría de escuelas de natación cubren las siguientes distancias: 50, 100, 200 y 500 m. libre; 100 m. espalda, braza, y mariposa; y 200 m. combinado individual. También hay relevos combinados en equipo, que incluyen carreras de diferentes estilos intercalados.
Las piscinas de natación reglamentarias son de 25 o 50 metros. En competición y entrenamiento el recorrido en longitud y el regreso al punto de partida se denomina vuelta; así se puede decir que se ha recorrido dos vueltas en lugar de 100 metros, en piscinas de 25 metros. Un largo hace referencia a la longitud recorrida sin dar la vuelta. Las piscinas públicas y los clubs de entrenamiento tienden frecuentemente a tener piscinas de 25 metros, aunque algunas pueden ser de 50 m.; en cambio las olímpicas son siempre de 50 metros.


                                               CLOTHES  &  FASHION.

One word sums up music and fashion in the 1970s : ABBA . They were famous for their music and their very colorful outfits . Girls wore mini-skirts and boats . For the men , it was tight tops and bell-bottoms . Plataform shoes became very popular . Disco fans used to wear three-piece suits and shirts with long collars.


In the 1980s , glamours musicans like david bowie and duran duran inpired fashion designers . Men used to wear frilly shirts , velvet jackets  with gold buttoms , and baggy pants . Women used leggings . long , thick socks called leg warmers , sweatshirts , and ripped jeans .



Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 under the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge of Scotland and Grand Lodge of Ireland, over a quarter of a million under the jurisdiction of the United Grand Lodge of England,and just under two million in the United States.
The fraternity is administratively organised into independent Grand Lodges or sometimes Orients, each of which governs its own jurisdiction, which consists of subordinate (or constituent) Lodges. The various Grand Lodges recognise each other, or not, based upon adherence to landmarks (a Grand Lodge will usually deem other Grand Lodges who share common landmarks to be regular, and those that do not to be "irregular" or "clandestine").
There are also appendant bodies, which are organisations related to the main branch of Freemasonry, but with their own independent administration.


                          Indigenous Australians



Indigenous Australians are the original inhabitants of the Australian continent and nearby islands. The Aboriginal Indigenous Australians migrated from Africa to Asia around 70,000 years ago and arrived in Australia around 50,000 years ago. The Torres Strait Islanders are indigenous to the Torres Strait Islands, which are at the northern-most tip of Queensland near Papua New Guinea. The term "Aboriginal" has traditionally been applied to indigenous inhabitants of mainland Australia, Tasmania, and some of the other adjacent islands.
The earliest definite human remains found to date are that of Mungo Man, which have been dated at about 40,000 years old, but the time of arrival of the ancestors of Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers, with estimates dating back as far as 125,000 years ago.There is great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own unique mixture of cultures, customs and languages. In present day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities
Although there were over 250–300 spoken languages with 600 dialects at the start of European settlement, fewer than 200 of these remain in use – and all but 20 are considered to be endangered. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English. The population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement has been estimated at between 318,000and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, with the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River.



                                      WHAT DID WE USE TO DO WITHOUT................?

An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance. It is most commonly used for cooking. Kilns and furnaces are special-purpose ovens. The first being used mainly for the fabrication of pottery and the second being used for forging.

The earliest ovens were found in Central Europe, and dated to 29,000 BC, it was used as roasting and boiling pits located within yurt structures. They were used to cook mammoth.In Ukraine from 20,000 BC they used pits with hot coals covered in ashes. The food was wrapped in leaves and set on top, then covered with earth.In camps found in Mezhirich, each mammoth bone house had a hearth used for heating and cooking.
Ovens have been used since prehistoric times by cultures who lived in the Indus Valley and pre-dynastic Egypt.Settlements across the Indus Valley had an oven within each mud-brick house by 3200 BC. The obvious explanation for the popular use of the oven in the homes would most likely involve its use for cooking food. However, baked brick sewers were also found at the Indus Valley civilization, which shows that they used the oven for masonry as well.Other ancient cultures that had use for the oven were pre-dynastic civilizations in Egypt. An early form of blacktopware was produced there which required a kiln. This is another hint showing how ovens were used from about 5000–4000 BC.
Culinary historians credit the Greeks for developing bread baking into an art. Front-loaded bread ovens were developed in ancient Greece. The Greeks created a wide variety of doughs, loaf shapes, and styles of serving bread with other foods. Baking developed as a trade and profession as bread increasingly was prepared outside of the family home by specially trained workers to be sold to the public. This is one of the oldest forms of professional food processing.



is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland constitutes over 790 islands including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

 The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707, although it had been in a personal union with the kingdoms of England and Ireland since James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603. On 1 May 1707, Scotland entered into an incorporating political union with England to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain. This union resulted from the Treaty of Union agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union passed by the Parliaments of both countries, despite popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow and elsewhere.


                                                     TRAVEL THROUGH THE TIME.

  • Horses used to bge main form or transportation.
  • As early as 3000 BC , poeple traveled by chariot.
  • In the middle ages , carriages changed to wagons , then later into stagecoches .
  • Nowdays , poeple mostly travel by car because it is cheap and easy.


                                                                 "COMING TO AMERICA".

My parents came to the States from Ireland in teh middle of the 19th century . When they were in Ireland  they lived on a farm and grew their orwn food. It was a hard life because tehy had no running water or electricity . There was no work and people lined up for free food at soup kitchens. 
Many people starved to death. My parents decided to move to Ameerica where they knew there was food and jobs.

I was born two years afeter they arrived . Now i live in one-room apartment in New York . We have rinning water and electricity ! i have a good  job , i work in a conbstruction and we build the fantastic skyscrapers you see shooting  up nowdays.

Life is not perfect , but is far better than the life my parents led in Ireland . 

jueves, 15 de noviembre de 2012


                                                  BEFORE FAME AND FORTUNE.

"Desesperate hosewives" antress Eva Longoria was not always rich and famous . She was born in Texas and lived on a small farm . Her family didn`t have a lot of money . Eva used to help out with chores on the farm after school . She  also used to fo fishing and hunting wiht her dad . Eva`s sister teased her told thath she was ugly .
Eva admitted she didn`t care much about her looks back then . Still , she was very popular at school .  Eva worked hard to successful actress and model.
She also volunteers charity organizations.

jueves, 11 de octubre de 2012


                                                 MY FUTURE:

I  will be a business woman , with a importat and great job.
I will study architecture or for enginner or lawyer , but if  i won`t wok in that , i will work  in the politic. 

I will be millonarie and powerfull women , i will build diferents houses for me and my family in diferents estates and countries.

I will travel around the world.........................



  • Head ache.
  • hay fever 
  • an earache 
  • a black eye 
  • a cut 
  • a bad caught
  • a sore throat
  • a cold / the flu
  • cramp

                 Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being. In humans, it is the general condition of a person's mind, body and spirit, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain (as in "good health" or "healthy"). The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in 1946 as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.                  


                                                                 WEATHER PROVERBS:

  • If the sky is read at night , it will be sunny the following day .
  • If clouds look like the scales of a fish , it will be windy or stormy.
  • If  the sky is clear at night and you can see the moon , there will be a frost in the morning .
  • If there is a rainbow in the morning , it will be rainy.
  • If  seagulls  come back  to land , it will be stormy.
  • If the starts shine bright  , it will be a cold  night .
  • If chimney smoke goes down , there will be bad weather . 
  • If crows fly low , it will be rainy .
  • If  fall trees hold their leaves , it will be a cold winter .
  • If the first three days of april are foggy , there will be a flood in  june .

miércoles, 10 de octubre de 2012


                                                                 CAN YOU BELIVE IT??????????

A.L machines are all around us ;not just in scince-fiction movies ,but also in a real life ! We use A.I when we search the internet and even when we play video games . These machines can store huge amounts of information and process them fast and accurately , What tehy lack is an ability to learn and make "clever dicions " as human do.

  • A.I  machines build cars and test them to make sure they sure they safe for people to drive . These machiones can do work humans can`t  do easily , such as lifting heavy car parts.
  • Scientits send specially designed ROV`S , which are deep - sea robotic vehicles ,  underwater  to explore the sea bed . Robots are able to work underwater for longer then humans divers.


                                                                WHITE SHARK:

The great white shark, Carcharodon carcharias, also known as the great white, white pointer, white shark, or white death, is a species of large lamniform shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans. The great white shark is mainly known for its size, with the largest individuals known to have approached or exceeded 6 m (20 ft) in length,and 2,268 kg (5,000 lb) in weight. This shark reaches its maturity around 15 years of age and can have a life span of over 30 years.

 The great white shark is arguably the world's largest known extant macropredatory fish, and is one of the primary predators of marine mammals. It is also known to prey upon a variety of other marine animals, including fish and seabirds. It is the only known surviving species of its genus Carcharodon, and is ranked first in having the most attacks on humans.


                                                  THE EXPERT ADVISES:

My advise would be to try yoga if you want . If you want to work out at home , you can find a number of excellent  DVD `S that will teach you the basics . Yoga wilol help you stregthen your body , and it will make you calmer and more relaxed . Give it a  try , i promise you`ll love it.

The first thing you will have to do is start making better food choices . If you can`t  order a healthy lunch , then you will have to bring your own packed lunch.  Exercise is important for many reasons . If you eat healthily and exercise 30 minutes a day , you`ll have more enrgy and you won`t put on weight.

martes, 9 de octubre de 2012


                                                            EARTH SOS

Every year , we destroy an area of forest the size of nex york state .
Trees provide oxygen and homes to many different species . If we continue cutting down forest , we`ll also lose plants that we can use to make medicine .

Factories pollute the air with smoke and the sea wiht chemicals . Acid rain falls from the skies and the sea life is under threat . If factories don`t stop polluting the enviroment , fresh air and clean water will be things of the past .

The average family throws away 2 tons of garbage every year , That`s about the weight of an elephant ! If we don`t recycle more, all the landfill sites will be full and we`ll soon have nowhere to dump all that garbage.

Four babies are born every second . The global population will be 9 billion by 2042 . If we want to feed everyone , we`ll have to produce 70% more food . Unless food food production increases , many more people will go hungry.

                                             WE NEED TO ACT NOW!!!

lunes, 8 de octubre de 2012



                                                         BAD  HABITS:


domingo, 23 de septiembre de 2012



The astronaunts live whithout daily luxieres such as hot showers.
They dont have much free time.
Zero gravity affects their health.
If an astronaunt dosent exercise daily , he wont be able to walk when he cames back to the earth.
Astronaunts wash their hair with a rinseless shampoo .
The crew eat , play , sleep and take a bath in the middeck.



When the sun is out , it heats the water in the oceans .
When the sun heats the water in the oceans , there is vapor . 
When the vapor rises into the air , it forms clouds . 
When water droplets in clouds gets too heavy , it rains .
When it rains , the water runs off the ground or into lakes and rivers.

martes, 18 de septiembre de 2012

Pride and Prejudice is a novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1813. The story follows the main character Elizabeth Bennet as she deals with issues of manners, upbringing, morality, education, and marriage in the society of the landed gentry of early 19th-century England. Elizabeth is the second of five daughters of a country gentleman living near the fictional town of Meryton in Hertfordshire, near London.